Canadian Electrical Industry News Week

Section 4By Pierre McDonald

Last month my article Conductor Ampacities and Their Temperature Rating http://electricalindustry.ca/index.php/latest-news/378-conductor-ampacities-and-their-temperature-rating outlined the implications and reasons for temperature requirements when sizing conductors using Rule 4-006 and the revised ampacity tables of the 2012 edition Canadian Electrical Code (CE Code). While this is an important rule with respect to the use and installation of conductors, there were several changes within Section 4 — Conductors, which should also be explored. 

 Rules 4-004(1)(d)(e)(f) for copper conductors and 4-004(2)(d)(e)(f) for aluminum conductors have been adjusted to remove any ambiguity as to when the code user can use the IEEE 835 standard for power cable ampacities. 

Previous wording of these rules required the code user to use the IEEE 835 standard in all cases (in conductor sizes No. 1/0 AWG and larger, in an underground run, directly buried or in a raceway), yet the Appendix B Notes contained Installation diagrams and Appendix D contained ampacity tables associated with these diagrams, all in conformance with the IEEE 835 Standard. 

The revised wording now specifies that the code user must use ampacity tables D8A through D15B for installations described in the Appendix B Diagrams B4-1 to B4-4, and use the IEEE 835 Standard only for configurations not specified in the diagrams. For conductor sizes smaller than 1/0 AWG, the code user has the choice of using Table 2 for Copper or Table 4 for Aluminum, or the calculation method as described in the IEEE 835 Standard. 

4-004 Ampacity of wires and cables (see Appendices B and I)

(1) The maximum current that a copper conductor of a given size and insulation may carry shall be as follows:

(d) single-conductor and 2-, 3-, and 4-conductor cables and single-conductor and 2-, 3-, and 4-conductor metal-armoured and metal-sheathed cables, in conductor sizes No. 1/0 AWG and larger, installed in accordance with configurations described in Diagrams B4-1 – B4-4 in an underground run, directly buried or in a raceway, as specified in Tables D8A through Table D15B;

(e) underground configurations not specified in item (d), in conductor sizes No. 1/0 AWG and larger, as calculated by the IEEE 835 calculation method; and 

(f) underground configurations in conductor sizes smaller than No. 1/0 AWG, as specified in Item (b) or as calculated by the IEEE 835 calculation method.

Note that 4-004(2)(d)(e)(f) is worded identically but is intended for aluminum conductors.

Additional changes have occurred in Rule 4-004, Subrules 9, 10, 12 and 13 to deal with de-rating factors of conductors in free air. Single conductor free air ampacities are permitted with one cable diameter (100%) spacing (Rules 4-004(1)(a) and 4-004 (2)(a)) but not for any other spacing. These changes describe requirements for the code user in situations where cables have maintained spacing between 25% and 100% of the cable diameter and those situations with less than 25% spacing. These changes bring the rules in 4-004 and 12-2210 into better alignment.

Rules 4-008, 4-012, 4-020 and 4-040 have all been reworded to better define the conditions of use. Specific wording indicates that the conductors specified in each rule

…shall be suitable for the particular location involved with respect to, but not limited to:

(a) moisture;

(b) corrosive action;

(c) temperature;

(d) degree of enclosure; and

(e) exposure to mechanical injury.

These rules cover insulated conductors as described in Table 19 and flexible cords, equipment wire and portable power cables as described in Table 11. While this change expands on the need to consider key criteria in the selection of conductors, cords, equipment wire and cables, Table 19 and Table 11 continue to serve as the main reference for selecting the appropriate wiring products.

Changes to Rule 4-010 include the rewording of the heading to the rule, the addition of Subrules (3), (4), (5) and (6), and substantial explanatory notes in Appendix B. These requirements provide direction when dealing with induced voltages and consolidate requirements that were once part of Rule 12-3022. If you remember your electrical theory, an alternating magnetic field is always associated with an alternating current-carrying conductor that induces a voltage onto the sheath. While this fact is true with all sheathed conductors, we only concern ourselves with those specific single conductors that carry 200 amps and more. 

Additionally, terminating these conductors into ferrous metal boxes will cause excessive heat to be generated due to the magnetic field that surrounds the conductors. In fact, any ferrous metal surrounding a conductor with substantial current flow will generate heat within that metal. Requirements of the CE Code go so far as to eliminate single conductors from entering individual openings, using non-metallic or non-ferrous boxes, connectors, cable glands, locknuts, bushings and ground bushings or terminating all cables that make up a circuit through a non-ferrous plate with a common opening. The Appendix B note to these rules provides additional background information and intent of this rule.

Rule 4-024 Size of Neutral Conductor, which allows for a reduced size of neutral conductor, has been revised to include one more situation where the neutral conductor cannot be reduced in size. For those neutral conductors connected to non-linear loads, there shall be no reduction in the size of that neutral. Non-linear loads can cause the phase currents to add up, which could result in a higher neutral current than phase current. Examples of non-linear loads are listed in the Appendix B note to the rule.

Finally, Section 4 rules now recognize the use of DLO power cables in Rules 4-040(4) and 4-042(2). DLO stands for Diesel-Electric Locomotive , and these cables have been included in the latest edition C22.2 No. 96 standard. They  find their uses in oil & gas drilling rigs, permanent / temporary power installations, motor leads (where flexibility is a must) and wind turbine applications. DLO cable ampacities can be found in Table 12E.

With these changes, the appropriate conductors can be used within their intended applications. Section 4 has been revised in the 2012 edition to meet the ampacity requirements of the CE Code-NEC Ampacity task force, recognize safer installation requirements, introduce new cables, and set parameters around certain conductor installations as our electrical loads change. The revisions made to the above code rules, along with their supporting tables, bring the necessary clarification forward to allow better application of code for many scenarios.


 

Pierre McDonald, CET, is Senior Regulatory Affairs Representative/Répresentant Principal, Affaires Réglementaires, Underwriters Laboratories of Canada Inc. Based in St. Albert, AB, Pierre has been a member of the Canadian Electrical Code Part 1 technical committee as well as several subcommittees including serving as Chair of Sections 6 and 76 and as a member representing regulators on several other CSA committees. Pierre is still active with code development and interpretation.

Read last month's article here:  http://electricalindustry.ca/index.php/latest-news/378-conductor-ampacities-and-their-temperature-rating

 Other articles by this author:

2015 CE Code: Changes on “Approved Electrical Equipment” 

Code and Public Safety 

Section 62: Fixed Electric Heating Systems 

Now Available: CAN/ULC Standard on Electric Utility Workplace Electrical Safety

Establishing When the CE Code Becomes Mandatory 

UL Code Link 

CAN/ULC-S576-14, Standard for Mass Notification System Equipment and Accessories 

Canadian CE Code Changes: Section 20 and More 

Meeting National Building Code of Canada Requirements 

Conductor Ampacities and Their Temperature Rating 


Codes and Standards - Provincial Legislation and the Administrative Requirements of the CE Code 

Changes to Section 12 Wiring Methods 

 


      Salex Welcomes New Partner: Senso by Lumini                    

LDS Salex Spotlight 400Salex is pleased to announce a new partnership with Senso by Luminii – a Canadian manufacturer of locally made LED fixtures. As of August 6, Salex will represent their lighting products in the Southwestern Ontario region.

With every product, Senso Lighting pursues a vision of providing flexible and environmentally conscious lighting solutions to upgrade the typical fluorescent office. For over ten years, the Canadian manufacturer has specialized in LED technology and embarks on a mission to illuminate commercial spaces with custom solutions that are beautiful, economical and sustainable.


READ MORE


 

Changing Scene

  • Prev
Join Schneider Electric live on November 10th for their virtual event as industry leaders ...
BCEA's next Professional Development series will be on 2018 Updates & 2021 Code Changes with ...
The Alberta Electrical Alliance have partnered with Mansfield Technical Services to provide ...
InfraCanada / InfraQuebec is an annual series of user group meetings across Canada for FLIR and ITC ...
IDEAL has a long history of offering collectible toy trucks, which have always been a popular item ...
In celebration of National Women’s History Month, the Canadian Apprenticeship Forum (CAFFCA) is ...
Hubbell Canada manufacturer of Electrical and Lighting products announces a significant step ...
Join ESA on Zoom for their first webinar of the fall, Electrically Safe Work ...
Being able to quickly adjust to the unexpected is a big part of any construction project, but solar ...
Rob McKinney will present on "The Eight Steps to Digitize Construction Workflow" during this ...


With the world changing at an unprecedented pace, companies today must respond quickly, responsibly. Discover the best strategies and latest technologies to help you thrive in the new normal. 

 

 

 

 

Read More


 

BCEA SparkBCBCEA's next Professional Development series will be on 2018 Updates & 2021 Code Changes with Ted Gilbert. Ted Gilbert is a well-known industry expert and a certified Master Electrician with over 30 years as an electrical contractor, electrician, code change instructor and Safety Officer with Technical Safety BC. He is a Senior Instructor with SparkBC Technical Training and currently teaches code change courses across BC.

Ted’s presentation will focus on the new or revised Rules pertaining to safety of personnel and protection of electrical equipment. These Rule changes are found in the BC Electrical Code in Sections 2,4,8,10,12,16,26 and 78.

Read More


 

 

AEAThe Alberta Electrical Alliance have partnered with Mansfield Technical Services to provide training on the 24th Edition of the Canadian Electrical Code. 

The course will cover changes in the Canadian Electrical Code to keep you current with safety standards for the installation and maintenance of electrical equipment.

Participants will learn:
  • 2018 Canadian Electrical Code 24th edition
  • Over 535 rule changes and 76 table changes
  • 69 new or revised special terminology and definition changes

 

Read More


 



Michelle BraniganBy Michelle Branigan

In the past few months, the term “she-cession” has been used to refer to the disproportionate impact that the COVID-19 pandemic is having on women’s participation in the workforce. Current Canadian numbers show that more women than men have lost their jobs, and fewer women than men have been able to get them back as workplaces re-open.

In Canadian electricity, women make up 26% of the workforce before taking into account the effects of the pandemic. In this situation, even small losses to women’s participation in electricity will have a detrimental impact on the sector.

Read More


 

Product News

  • Prev
The 51110-SRG residential surge protection panel is designed for mounting at the service entrance ...
The Models 6528 and 6529 are low cost 1000V hand-held instruments that offer Multimeter functions ...
The RMSM series of commercial thermoplastic PAR18/MR16 remotes provides the perfect balance of ...
A continuous band of flawless light output with no pixelated hot spots – even without a lens. ...
The Klick System by A-LINE, a Liteline brand, is the perfect combination of track and LED fixtures. ...
The WaveLinx Lite integrated sensor for Galleon and Top Tier parking garage applications is simple ...
Stanpro 4” and 6″ LED recessed downlight with adjustable trim is available for Non-IC and remodeler ...
Avoid the trouble caused from tripped circuit breakers with Eaton's Energy Management System (EMS), ...
FLIR Systems, Inc. (NASDAQ: FLIR) today announced four new additions to its Exx-Series of advanced ...
Provides extra depth to Type 1 screw cover junction boxes - for use with CS, CSG, CSKO, CSKOG ...


 

Jesco No-Pixel Flexible LED Strip• A continuous band of flawless light output with no pixelated hot spots – even without a lens
• 3-Step MacAdam LED binning for uniformity in both color and intensity
• 2oz. PCB thickness for optimal thermal management
• Solder pads are gold plated providing exceptional electrical connectivity and are corrosion-free.
• Field-cuttable
• Cut ends can be linked with connectors. No soldering required.
• Easy installation with 3M® adhesive tape

 

Read More


 

FLIR Systems Exx-Series Handheld Thermal CameraFLIR Systems, Inc. (NASDAQ: FLIR) today announced four new additions to its Exx-Series of advanced thermal imaging cameras: the E96, E86, E76 and E54. Compared to predecessor Exx-Series cameras, the new cameras offer enhanced thermal resolution for more vibrant, easy-to-read images and on-camera routing capability to improve field survey efficiency.

The new Exx-Series cameras are designed to help professionals detect the early signs of building issues, identify hot spots, troubleshoot electrical and mechanical systems, and prevent problems before they cause damage that leads to expensive repairs.

Read More


 

Peers & Profiles

  • Prev
For more than a century, ABB has been investing in Canadian technologies and products to support ...
Mackenzie Gillan, a bright young lady from Baysville, Ontario, tells us about how she learned ...
Energy Efficient Lighting is a LED lighting manufacturer with nearly 30 years of industry ...
Dee Durant is an industrial electrician apprentice attending Conestoga College and an Ambassador ...
ECAO recently launched a new program called Future Leaders Advisory Council (FLAC). Their inaugural ...
At 14, Tom Miguel was sitting in the counselor’s office of Silverthorn Collegiate Institute in ...
Meredith Halfpenny is a Wind Site Technician with Boralex where she inspects, maintains, and ...
Rutul Bhavsar is a final year Electrical Engineering student at Mohawk College. He recently ...
Shannon Tymosko is a first-year apprentice with IBEW (International Brotherhood of Electrical ...
ELG Electric is an electrical contractor based out of Goderich, Ontario serving the area’s ...

Dee DurantDee Durant is an industrial electrician apprentice attending Conestoga College and an Ambassador for Kick Ass Careers. As an ambassador for KickAss Careers she spent time shadowing mentor and KickAss founder Jamie McMillan attending events for the organization.

The advancement of women in male dominated industries is an important endeavor for Durant, inspired by her mother, who was the first woman on the Brantford Police department. In EIN's interview with Durant, she discussed the future of electrical work, and how the ongoing pandemic is affecting our country’s students.

Read More


 

ABBFor more than a century, ABB has been investing in Canadian technologies and products to support the development of local businesses.

Canada has been known around the world for its delicious maple syrup and warm winter coats. But it is also a place for innovation, certainly for technology leader ABB, which has partnered with several Canadian customers to foster industrial transformation and manufacture products that suit their specific needs for over a century. Across Canada, ABB experts build the most trusted products in North America.

 

Read More


 

Copper $US Dollar price per pound

Kerrwil Publications Great Place to Work. Certified December 2019 - December 2020

538 Elizabeth Street, Midland,Ontario, Canada L4R2A3 +1 705 527 7666
©2020 All rights reserved

Use of this Site constitutes acceptance of our Privacy Policy (effective 1.1.2016)
The material on this site may not be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, cached or otherwise used, except with the prior written permission of Kerrwil