Canadian Electrical Industry News Week

Electrical Conductors

William (Bill) Burr

The CE Code is a comprehensive document. Sometimes it can seem quite daunting to quickly find the information you need. This series of articles provides a guide to help users find their way through this critical document. In this article: Section 4. It is not intended to replace the notes in Appendix B or the explanations of individual requirements contained in the CEC Handbook, but will hopefully provide some help in navigating the code.

Section 4 – Conductors

The definition of conductor, from Section 0, is a wire or cable, or other form of metal, installed for the purpose of conveying electric current from one piece of electrical equipment to another or to ground.

Section 4 deals with the selection of type, ampacity and installation conditions of insulated conductors. It is a general section and therefore it applies to all conductors supplying lighting, appliances and power circuits. The selection of other conductors, such as for control, grounding, emergency, safety, fire alarms, airport installations, renewable energy, communications, cathodic protection, and others, will be governed by individual sections covering these situations. Individual sections may also apply as general sections, or may have rules that reference or amend Section 4.

For example, Sections

• 6 — Services and service equipment
• 8 — Circuit loading and demand factors
• 10 — Grounding and bonding
• 12 — Wiring methods
• 14 — Protection and control
• 16 — Class I and Class II circuits
• 26 — Installation of electrical equipment

For this reason it is important to compare the rules in Section 4 with the rules governing conductors in the section dealing with your particular installation. For instance, Rule 4-002 requires that the minimum size for all copper conductors, except for flexible cord, equipment wire, or control circuit wire, and cable (which are specifically covered by other sections) is No.14 AWG and No. 12 AWG if aluminum. However, in Section 6, Rule 6-302 Installation of overhead consumer's service conductors requires that the minimum size for overhead consumer’s service conductors is No.10 AWG copper or No. 8 AWG aluminum. Even though there are amendatory sections and rules later in the code, it is still important that you refer to Section 4 first when selecting and installing any conductor.

Conductor selection factors

When selecting a conductor there are a number of factors to be considered. Because of the complexity of conditions, you need to have a process to determine the correct type and size for your application. The first consideration is to choose the size of conductor you need based on the

• current it will be required to carry
• conditions under which it will be installed
• type of conductor or cable to be used

Rule 4-004 Ampacity of wires and cables contains 7 items each in subrules (1) and (2) covering scenario options each for copper and aluminum that need to be studied and chosen. In addition, there are 21 other factors in the subsequent subrules to be considered.

Although this may seem daunting at first, it is simply a matter of going through the list of options and conditions and choosing the ones that apply to your situation. Rule 4-004 will then direct you to the correct table and correction factor for your situation.In some cases you will be directed to use the IEEE 385 calculation method or the tabulated information tables in Appendix D. The IEEE 385 Standard Power Cable Ampacity Tables contains all pertinent equations and has the electrical/thermal analog circuit and calculation examples in the annex.

Once the right ampacity has been chosen or calculated, the next factor to consider, according to Rule 4-006, is the temperature limitations on the conductor ampacity you have chosen. Where the maximum conductor termination temperature is marked on the equipment, you will have already chosen the minimum size of conductor based on the correct temperature column of tables 1, 2, 3 or 4. Where the maximum conductor termination temperature is not marked on the equipment, the temperature to be used is: 600 C for equipment rated 100 A or less or marked for use with No.1 AWG or smaller conductors, or 750 C for equipment rated more than 100 A or marked for use with conductors larger than No. 1 AWG.

These conditions apply only to the first 1.2 meters of conductor length measured from the termination point of the equipment.One other condition to note when using a single conductor cable with a metal sheath or armour: induced voltages may cause the conductor insulation temperature to exceed its rating. In this case,Rule 4-010 Induced voltages and currents in metal armour or sheaths of single-conductor cables requires you to derate the conductor along with some other procedures to mitigate this situation.

The next important consideration outlined in Rules 4-008, 4-012, 4-014, 4-016, 4-018, 4-020, 4-040 and 4-042 is the selection of the type of insulated conductor, flexible cord, equipment wire or portable power cable. In some cases these rules will specify minimum sizes and ampacities for the various types.

Finally we go back to Rules 4-022, 4-024, 4-026, 4-028, 4-030, 4-032, 4-034, and 4-036, which provide for the use of a common neutral, installation, identification and use of neutral and identified conductors. Rule 4-038 Colour of conductorscovers the colouring of insulated grounding and bonding conductors, and where colour-coded circuits are required.

You will note that Section 4 does not apply to non-insulated grounding or bonding conductors. The use, size and ampacity of these conductors are covered by Section 10, which we will deal with in subsequent instalments.

In the next installment we will explore Section 6 — Services and service equipment.

Read the rest of the instalments in the series:

Part 1: Guide to the CE Code, Part I — A Roadmap (Instalment 1 in a Series)
Part 2:
A Road Map to the CE Code, Part I — Instalment 2
Part 3: Guide to the Canadian Electrical Code, Part I — Instalment 3
Part 4: A Road Map to the CE Code, Part 1 — Instalment 4
Part 5: Guide to the Canadian Electrical Code, Part I — Instalment 5
Part 6: Guide to the Canadian Electrical Code, Part I — Instalment 6
Part 7: Guide to the Canadian Electrical Code, Part I — Instalment 7
Part 8: Guide to the Canadian Electrical Code, Part I — Instalment 8
Part 9:
Guide to the Canadian Electrical Code, Part I — Installment 9
Part 10: Guide to the Canadian Electrical Code, Part 1 — Instalment 10
Part 11: Guide to the Canadian Electrical Code, Part 1 — Instalment 11


 

William (Bill) Burr is the former Chair of the Canadian Advisory Council on Electrical Safety (CACES), former Director of Electrical and Elevator Safety for the Province of BC, and former Director of Electrical and Gas Standards Development and former Director of Conformity Assessment at CSA Group. Bill can be reached at Burr and Associates Consulting billburr@gmail.com.

 

Changing Scene

  • Prev
 Canada’s National Electrical Trade Council (NETCO) is pleased to announce that IDEAL ...
The Government of Saskatchewan is engaging the public to help ensure health and safety legislation ...
Despite electrical shock being a serious and potentially dangerous event, it is frequently ...
Acuity Brands, Inc. has announced its Care222® filtered far-UVC module with patent-pending ...
LEDVANCE, the makers of SYLVANIA general lighting in the United States and Canada, recently ...
The federal governemnt launched a Call for Proposals under the new Apprenticeship Service, to ...
ECAO and OEL are working on obtaining more contractor experiences with the ESA permit system. ...
Agents of Change is an event for stakeholders from Canada's electricity and beyond to build ...
Schneider Electric is introducing a personalized digital experience for logged in customers ...
Teledyne Technologies Incorporated announced the successful completion of the acquisition of FLIR ...


 

SaskatchewanThe Government of Saskatchewan is engaging the public to help ensure health and safety legislation meets the needs of employers and workers in the province. From August 16 to October 18, 2021 citizens can provide input on part III (occupational health and safety) of The Saskatchewan Employment Act.

"Our province has a plan for growth that includes ensuring we have safe and healthy workplaces" Labour Relations and Workplace Safety Minister Don Morgan said. 

 


Read More


 

Canadian Electrical Contractor Discussion Group: Can You Count the Deficiencies?

EIN CECD 400Have you ever been called to fix the work of a 'handyman'?

"Was supposedly done by a"certified ' electrician....told the homeowner that he got a $266 permit....no record at TSBC. Can you count the deficiencies?"

"There is a second panel change in the triplex also.......even more deficiencies. Think the guy was a glorified handyman. Ones not obvious: 240 BB heat hooked up 120....drier on 2p20....range on 2p50....water heater fed with 2c14 Bx on 2p15."

Go HERE to join the discussion

 


 



 

Desert HomeA combination of stunning design, a spectacular desert setting, and exceptional architectural lighting is a winning combination for a private residence just outside of St. George, Utah. JRC Lighting was hired by the homeowner to create the lighting concept for the showpiece home.

"The house has an almost industrial look to it, with a focus on clean lines," said Kevin Meredith, principal at JRC Lighting. "My goal was to keep the lighting understated and let the architecture, and the views, sell themselves.”

 

Read More


 

 

David GordonBy David Gordon

This summer EiKO is launching its Z10 product offering. I know, what is Z10 other than the sports cars some of us remember (’69 Z10 Camaro or a 2009 BMW Z10, but let’s go with an American muscle car!)?

So, since it seemed like a sports car “name” (since sports car naming seems to be in numbers), we reached out to Sarah Eastman, VP Marketing for EiKO, who shared that Z10 is an alliance of manufacturers who have developed standards to support an easier lighting controls process within fixtures (remember, I’m not a product maven).
Read More


 

Product News

  • Prev
Atkore’s FRE Composites® BreathSaver® XW fiberglass conduit system uses a non-metallic, phenolic ...
Atkore’s FRE Composites® fiberglass conduit recently experienced increased demand in above- and ...
4 speed Supreme Series fan with an optional speed controller DMD-LED-3.      
Set up, switch out and print faster than you ever imagined with the BradyPrinter i5300 ...
Siemens whole-house protection devices defend the sensitive electronics that are susceptible to ...
LSP05GI Series LED Lighting Surge Protection Modules are designed for use in outdoor and commercial ...
Milwaukee Tool expands their Lighting Solutions once again with the introduction of the M12™ ...
M12™ Cable Stripper Kit for Cu THHN / XHHW aims to improve the cable stripping experience. With no ...
Here’s the easy, NEAT way to mount single or two-gang boxes between wood or metal studs with ...
LEDVANCE, the makers of SYLVANIA general lighting in the United States and Canada, has released the ...

 

Milwaukee M12 Cable StripperM12™ Cable Stripper Kit for Cu THHN / XHHW aims to improve the cable stripping experience. With no exposed blades, the cordless cable stripper provides safer stripping than with a knife. The cable stripper's compact, right-angle design allows you to maneuver it more easily in tight spaces with less strain on the wrist. The bushing design and adjustable depth gauge deliver cleaner, more accurate and consistent strips across all sizes.

The cable jacket stripping tool is not only compatible with all MILWAUKEE® bushings but is also compatible with competitive quick-change bushings.

 

Read More


 

 

Incoplas HybridThe Incoplas® LED Hybrid is a durable multi-purpose and corrosion-resistant LED lighting solution that can be used in heavy industrial applications where hazardous location lighting is required.

Certifications

Class 1:

Flammable Gases and Liquids

Division 2: The hazardous atmosphere is only available infrequently (i.e. in case of spill).

 

Read More


 

 

EarthTronics 25-Watt Emergency Driver for Linear HighbayEarthTronics LED emergency drivers regulate the power supplied to the LED fixture so that it can operate as a light source in the event of a power failure. The purpose of emergency lighting is to ensure that lighting is provided promptly, automatically and for a suitable time when the normal power supply fails.

This insures that people within the building can evacuate safely in the event of an emergency. All EarthTronics emergency drivers meet specific UL, CSA and NFPA requirements. Always consult local code requirements when specifying emergency lighting products.

Read More


 

Peers & Profiles

  • Prev
This past July, Kerith Richards, who has worked for Service Wire Company for the last seven years, ...
EngWorks was formed in 2004 as an electrical engineering and consulting firm by Allan Bozek, “After ...
Headquartered in Concord, Ontario, Mercury Lighting services national retail, ...
Among the recipients of the 2021 Clean50 Awards announced last month is Carolina Gallo, Vice ...
Sarah Silverstein is a principal with Liteline along side her two brothers Mark and Daniel. ...
As a 34-year-old female owner of an electrical contracting business, Danielle Gray may be unique. ...
Mark Klein is Co-President of Klein Tools, managing Sales & Marketing activities, alongside ...
Bryan Smith started his now 20-year career at the ground floor, so to speak, as a draftsperson and ...
From small construction to sophisticated industrial projects, House of Electrical Supplies has been ...
Kyle Manfredi is the owner of ARK Electrical alongside his wife, Shannon. Operating out of ...


EngWorksBy Blake Marchand

EngWorks was formed in 2004 as an electrical engineering and consulting firm by Allan Bozek, “After a short time we realized there was a niche in hazardous locations, in particular in hazardous area classification design requirements for various facilities. And also helping people understand just how the Canadian Electrical Code applies to hazardous locations.”

Given the complexity of hazardous locations, Bozek saw a need for education while working in the field and began developing training courses designed.

Read More


 

 

Eric TordjmanBy Blake Marchand

Headquartered in Concord, Ontario, Mercury Lighting services national retail, multi-residential/commercial property management, energy service companies (ESCO), and auto dealerships. “From design to specifications, we offer turn-key services that go beyond the typical distributor model,” explained Mercury Lighting Vice President, Eric Tordjman. Their value-added approach leverages well-established supplier relations to help clients find a lighting solution that suits their needs.

“How we differentiate ourselves is we’re lighting specific, we do very little in the way of electrical, and really emphasizing our expertise towards solutions selling...

Read More


 

Copper $US Dollar price per pound

Kerrwil Publications Great Place to Work. Certified December 2019 - December 2020

538 Elizabeth Street, Midland,Ontario, Canada L4R2A3 +1 705 527 7666
©2021 All rights reserved

Use of this Site constitutes acceptance of our Privacy Policy (effective 1.1.2016)
The material on this site may not be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, cached or otherwise used, except with the prior written permission of Kerrwil